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ENERGY SYSTEMS AND PERFORMANCE

ENERGY SYSTEMS AND PERFORMANCE

Before talking about our body's energy systems that are triggered by a physical effort, we see the definition of the training concept. Training can be understood as " programmed, organized, timed delivery of certain biological stimuli, which has the ultimate goal of improving sports performance." Each racer knows that after a training load our body receives stimuli that allow it to improve, such improvement is achieved if the stimulus is adapted to its current condition, otherwise it is likely to bring the organism beyond its ability to endure, Going to the Overtraining phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary that the training stimulus, both as quantity and as intensity, is as personal as possible, gradual and respectful of the law of loading and unloading , which is nothing but the Supercompensation Act. Ultimately, after having delivered a body-stimulating stimulus (positive stress) and after a general fatigue post-workout phase, there is an adaptation and a subsequent improvement in performance (supercompensation). However, if the stimulus or stimuli were too intense and repeated over time with insufficient rest and neuromuscular recovery, then Overtraining would be a decay.

This suggests that every training stimulus must have its place in the training program and must take into account several parameters that are suitable for improving sports performance:

  • Targeted and targeted training stimulus
  • Proper recovery between one stimulus and another
  • Restorative rest (sleep)

I would like to dwell on the concept of the training stimulus that must be focused and specific for that race we are preparing, so preparation must reflect certain conditions. To better understand this concept we see before analyzing the Energy Systems used by our body to provide energy.

ENERGY SYSTEMS

Very simply, the Energy Systems are nothing more than the metabolic pathways used by our body for the reshaping of the ATP molecule (adenostrifosphate) and that in doing so there are generally three main energy systems, which can have different power and capacities based on To the use of the energy produced. The three systems can be classified into:

  1. Phosphagene system
  2. Glycolysis system
  3. Oxidative phosphorylation system

Phosphagene system:

Everyone knows this system as an anaerobic anaerobic energy system since it does not use oxygen (anaerobic) and does not produce lactate (alatacido). Such a system uses Phosphagene as a rich molecule of energy, which in humans is represented by phosphocretin. What we are interested in training is that this system is very powerful, it supplies energy quickly, but it runs out in seconds (eg sprint, inteval training). So it is the first to intervene when the effort is intense and of limited duration.

Glycolysis System

This system mainly uses the energy substrate as carbohydrates, which we know are named Glycogen and Glucose. This process is very important and becomes crucial, above all on three occasions and conditions:

  • When a sudden, rapid energy demand occurs, as it may be when there is a change in exercise intensity (slow running example + fast run);
  • When there is a debt of oxygen, or inadequate oxygen supply, which may be in cases of muscular contractions defined as isometric (there is no movement);
  • When the intensity of the exercise is greater than 60% of the VO2max.

One has to keep in mind for our training and therefore the setting of running training sessions that this system (with pyruvate production) can take two distinct ways:

A) lactate-reduced pyruvate and talk of anaerobic glycolysis, which is much more potent, but unprofitable compared to Oxyphosphorylation (Aerobic Glycolysis);

B) pyruvate completes the oxidation process with carbon dioxide and water, through oxidative phosphorylation, then we talk about Aerobic Glycolysis, which is less powerful but definitely more profitable with the passage of training time

Oxidative phosphorylation system

This system is very productive and effective, accounting for about 90% of the total ATP (adenocyphosphate) production of the body. Oxidative phosphorylation is carried out by a series of biochemical reactions, which reactions can be divided into:

  • Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
  • Electron transport chain

We do not care much about the merit and the biochemical dissertation of these processes, what matters to know is that this aerobic energy system (oxygen presence) to be effective and thus trained, one must put in and propose during the preparation of a series Of training sessions aim at improving oxygen transport to cells (mitochondria) where it will eventually be used. So they are nothing more than training methods that are part of the improvement of the central components of our body's aerobic system. It should also be borne in mind that this Oxidation Phosphorylation System uses foods we ingest with nutrition to provide energy, so it is about carbohydrates, lipids, and in exceptional cases even muscle proteins. From a biochemical point of view we can state that the oxygen extracted from the air we breathe, binds to hemoglobin (blood protein), is present in the red blood cells to be shed on the muscle at the myoglobin, then to reach the mitochondria present in the cell . That is why it is very clear that the greater the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, so the red blood cells, the greater the oxygen intake, the consequence the so- called Hematocrit will increase . Aerobic training and above all workout in the high seas for a certain period of time (at least 3 weeks) at an altitude ranging from 1800 to 2300mt asl, leads to an improvement in hematocrit, mainly due to a normal increase in ' Erythropoietin that stimulates the production of new red blood cells.

Balance of Energy Systems

Let's try to understand from a practical point of view how we can train at best by trying to develop the mechanisms, energy systems mentioned above. It is, however, necessary to know that it is not possible to train and improve all three systems at the same time (and therefore work best for all road races: 10-21-42km), and then put in training tools that do not get together. The important thing is the right balance, balance and programming throughout the year that allows each of us to take full advantage of their potential and thus ensure a successful athletic preparation. In training programming what you need to know is the fact that there is a direct interference between the Glycolysis Anaerobic System with Oxygen Phosphorylation.

In practice, during the training, insert specific training to improve anaerobic glycolysis (eg interval training sessions, repeated in the plains) leading to a massive lactic acid production, does nothing but interfere with the fat utilization system (Lipid Power ). From this it can be seen that if we are specifically preparing a Marathon, we can not force too much in the sessions of Interval Training, anaerobic training, when that would interfere with the use of fat during the Marathon. So you need to put the sessions to improve Glycolysis Anaerobic in distant periods of the race, also the percentage of these sessions are limited and the rhythm management is not too high to allow substantial lactic acid production with difficulty to be disposed and reused for Provide energy. So if training to prepare the Marathon needs to improve Lipid Power by Oxidation Phosphorylation, and then to make use of carbohydrate fat mainly as energy substrate, we need to put in training sessions that allow all this .

So, in conclusion, we can say that workouts, their scheduling and time organization must be evaluated in such a way as to calibrate the effects they can make to energy systems, depending on the specificity of the race being prepared. There is no point in improving the Anaerobic Glycolysis System if our goal is to prepare the Marathon, so you will not need to enter many training sessions that will work on the anaerobic threshold, but it will be crucial to improve lipid power at the right time. So let's look at the following two examples of eight week training training that refer to the specific 10km race goal and Marathon. The program includes 4 days a week training for 8 weeks with the aim of achieving maximum performance at the time of the race, all planned with respect to the concept of improvement and balance of the two energy systems Glycolysis Anaerobic (10km) And Oxidative Phosphorylation.

SPECIFIC WEEKS TO IMPROVE ANAEROBIC GLYCOLIS (10km)

1

CL 10km + extending

RMP 8 x 1km RG rec 2-3'00

CL 10km + extending

CM 10km Rgara 10km + 15_25 "

2

CL 10km + extending

RBsalita 10 x 300mt rec down

CL 10km + extending

Short Fast Fraction 4 + 4km

3

CL 10km + extending

RBP 10 x 500mt - 10 "RG rec 2'00

CL 10km + extending

CM 12km Rgara 10km + 15_25 "

4

CL 10km + extension

Fartlek 10 x 1 'fast + 1' slow

CL 10km + extending

Short Fast Fraction 5 + 5km

5

CL 10km + extending

RLP 4 x 2km RG + 5 "rec 3-4'00

CL 10km + extending

Progressive 10km

6

CL 10km + extending

RBsalita 10 x 200mt rec down

CL 10km + extending

Short Fast 6 km

7

CL 10km + extending

RBP 10 x 300mt - 20 "RG rec 4-5'00

CL 10km + extending

CM 14km Rgara 10km + 15_25 "

8

CL 10km + extending

Fartlek 10 x 1 'fast + 1' slow

CL 10km + extending

Objective: Race 10km

SPECIFIC WEEKS TO IMPROVE OXIDATIVE FOSFORILATION (42km)

1

CL 10km + extending

RMP 8 x 1km RG + 5 "rec 2'-3'00

CL 10km + extending

Long Way 24 - 28km

2

CL 10km + extending

RBsalita 10 x 200mt rec down

CL 10km + extending

CM 15km Rhythm Marathon

3

CL 10km + extending

RLP 5 x 2km + 5 "RG rec 3-4'00

CL 10km + extending

Long Fly 28 - 32km

4

CL 10km + extending

Fartlek 10 x 1 'fast + 1' slow

CL 10km + extending

Progressive Marathon Rhythm 18 km

5

CL 10km + extending

RLP 3x 3km RG + 10-15 "rec 4'-5'00

CL 10km + extending

Long Fly 32 - 36km

6

CL 10km + extending

RBP 10 x 200mt rec down

CL 10km + extending

CM 21km Rhythm Marathon

7

CL 10km + extending

RM RT Marathon 8 x 1km RM rec 3'00

CL 10km + extending

Marathon rhythm 15km

8

CL 10km + extending

Fartlek 10 x 1 'fast + 1' slow

CL 10km + extending

Objective: Marathon

Good run at all!

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