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The fraction of cycling in the triathlon

alt Cycling is the fraction that has seen the biggest changes in the Olympic distance. The distance of forty kilometers is perhaps the only constant that has remained unchanged in a series of changes that over the years has involved regulation, mechanics, modeling and training theory. The liberalization of the wake was the legitimation of a fact: the leveling of performance among the strongest triathletes in the world did not allow to detect significant breaks at the end of the swim with the consequent crowding of athletes who poured out of the first gear zone Without the possibility of cycling independently of other competitors. Over the last few years, some of the World Cup races have happened to attend breakaways where fifty minutes were less than thirty seconds from the best. Therefore, the cycling performance was completely changed: while the bicycle was forbidden, each competitor had to travel alone in the entire fraction, today it is only forced to do so by those who remain irremediably cut off from the group leading the race and those pursuing it in the hope To fill the accumulated detachment. If in the past the lonely cycling effort was a crucial moment in performance, it is today the worst situation in which every triathlete may be. The preparation has also changed, no longer focused on the need to support a chronometer test, but aimed at a competition full of technical, tactical and metabolic nuances; The morphological structure of the triathlete has changed: the passionate with a large muscular structure has undergone an atypical athlete, who knows how to combine fast strength and strength in a light and elastic structure. The revolution in cycling has actually changed the face of the entire Olympic race. To avoid being isolated on a bicycle, it is crucial to swim very strongly, while it is equally important to run faster and faster, since it is almost always the race that determines the ranking positions. This does not mean that the first two fractions are devoid of agonistic significance. It is to be said that only athletes capable of holding the rhythms of the first for the two previous fractions will be able to win the race, provided they arrive in the second transition zone still have sufficient energy reserves and sufficient freshness.

The triathlon cycling fraction is the most unpredictable part of the entire competition, as well as the one that can have multiple technical and durable variables. In the top international races this fraction, based on the racing distance, runs in a circuit with a number of revolutions that vary and with a number of curves that are always quite high, making each route particularly technical. Often there are real "boom rides" that force athletes to slow down the pace and then relaunch it immediately. In some cases there are ascents and descents of significant length and slopes. In other cases the route is completely flat.


The bicycle is a machine composed of several components that we can group into four groups according to their function:

  • Chassis (Hose Pipe Hose Horizontal Hose Pipe Hose Front fork fork Front)
  • Steering (steering gear handlebar handlebar handle )
  • Wheels (air chamber rim and hub rails)
  • Transmission (center movement, crankshaft, gear, crankshaft, pedal, derailleur, sprockets, chain, shift levers , brake cams, saddle, boat)

When selecting a bicycle, consider the right proportions between the chassis and other elements of the vehicle and the anthropometric measurements of the student. These proportions depend essentially on the vertical and the horizontal measurements. The vertical measurement consists of three elements: the length of the pedal (from the center of the pedal axis to the center of the center movement); The length of the pier tube (from the center of the center movement to the center of the horizontal tube diameter); The length of the boat and saddle (from the center of the horizontal pipe to the point of contact on the saddle). The horizontal measurement consists of two elements: the length of the horizontal tube (from the center of the tube to the center of the tube); The length of the pipe. Today there are precise and computerized systems to determine the measurements appropriate to the anthropometric characteristics of each individual. However, the use of the road bike can be alternated in some periods of preparation from the use of MTB. The most "important" measure in this jib is the height of the saddle. The most practical method to settle it is to pedal backward the student sitting with the heels on the pedals: the appropriate height should correspond to the one in which the student's leg is tensed with the passage of the pedal in line with the Tube tube. To determine the horizontal dimension, the bust of the student, in the position of maximum engagement, is flexed correctly forward, avoiding too short or long positions that would accentuate paramorphic attitudes.


  1. 1.     Means for the acquisition of technique:

The cycling technical skills represent the individual and cycling group basics. The mastery of these abilities allows the cyclist and the triathlete to be able to master his or her own mechanical means at all times and to be able to derive maximum performance from their own efforts. Their learning can begin with the use of MTB and then be transferred and adapted to the needs and potential of the road bike.

1.a Means for the acquisition of primary technical skills:

The exercises to be carried out, are aimed at the learning and subsequent improvement of primary technical skills. Some are quite simple and, of course, they must be made for the first, others more complex because they require a certain level of driving safety and mastery of the medium. The exercises can then be placed in any training session, in the form of simple exercise to be performed, inserted in paths, in groups. They can also be part of sessions aimed at learning transitional techniques or combined training. As the technique improves, increase the coefficient of difficulty of each exercise by placing it in more challenging coordination conditions.

The exercises proposed are aimed at acquiring the following skills: (pedaling / straightening / braking / curving / braking and curving / balancing)


The cyclic gesture of the pedal is a very important technical element and the economic execution and deconstruction of such action must be among the very first goals to be achieved. At the top dead point (see picture below), with the foot in the flexion position, the thrust phase is initially driven primarily by the femoral quadriceps and, further to the lower dead point, involves the muscles of the calf more. In the traction stage, from the lower dead point to the upper one, the foot will progressively stretch before lowering the heel rapidly to the top dead spot to restart the thrust phase. The traction phase forces the flexor muscles of the thigh. However, it is not certain that a "pull" upward action of the pedal is really economical for the performance of the While it is certainly beneficial to learn, at this stage, the ability to deconstruct the muscles and significantly decrease the foot pressure on the pedal. The feel that the runner must try is that of the round pedal with a fluid, continuous and non-fragmented gesture. The repetition of the gesture leads to the progressive automation of the pedal gesture and the acquisition of a technique in which muscle interventions become more and more economically selective. Exercises at different pedaling frequencies and focus on agility and frequency at the expense of excessive use of force allow students to acquire good technique and great sensitivity, especially when sessions last for several tens of minutes. The use of fixed -bicycle tires aims to improve these coordination aspects in less time than normal.


Figure 1: (1 large gluteus, 2 femoral ridge, 3 vast medium, 4 wide side, 5 tibial front, 6 gastrocnemio, 7 femoral biceps, 8 semimembranous)

The pedal can be represented by a division into 8 main points in which different forces act. In short, we have:

Figure 2: (1 thrust, 2 thrust / pressure, 3 pressure, 4 pressure pull, 5 shooting, 6 shooting / lifting, 7 lifting, 8 lifting push)

The optimum from a physical point of view reaches 65% (arrow A)


Among the exercises aimed at improving the pedaling technique we can remember: the fixed ratio, behind the motor and the high frequency pedal sections or with pedal variation . The fixed ratio is a mechanical arrangement that does not allow the rider to stop the pedal and force him to perform a cheaper and decontracted action and is extremely useful in improving the ability to improve at high and very high pedaling rates.

The workout behind the bike or behind the car makes it possible to use the friction decrease with the air that comes from it, to pedal in high frequency pedaling decontraction. Training sessions with pedal pace variations make for a good technical exercise. High-speed (110 / 125rpm) trails with agile ratios, exercise coordination skills, and are designed to make pedaling more economical and cost-effective.

Getting the right leadership: Conducting a bicycle along a straight line is not a skill to take for granted at any age, although there is often a belief among children and young people to know how to do it properly. In some cases then simply insert a small variant (eg rotate the head) to bring down control of the medium. The problem is complicated by the right to stand straight. Knowing how to pedal on foot (off-road) involves a good combination of the action of the legs and arms. The unbalancing caused by the push of the legs must be compensated by the action of the arms that will tilt the bicycle in an oscillatory movement which, with the improvement of the technique, will tend to be minimal. If the shoulders remain locked, the basin will oscillate.

1.   In a slight downhill, head right while sitting and giving some thrust with the feet that remain flat to the ground;

2.   Head straight while sitting and pedaling for a distance of 100/150 meters in a straight line, possibly striving to tap a line drawn to the ground;

3.   Straighten between two rows of skittles or cones that converge more and more into funnels until they leave a small space for the passage;

4.   The two previous exercises held on pedals instead of sitting;

5.   Head straight on a line in constant acceleration from sitting and then standing on the pedals;

6.   Head straight on a line by turning your head to the right and left: sitting, standing, and accelerating;

7.   Head right into a tightness marked with the jumps of the high jump that forces the performer also to control the shoulders;

8.   Direct right on a pivot axis (swing)

Acquiring the ability to curb Know how to curb gives the beginner confidence and confidence and will help the learning process.

9.   Braking with both brakes after a stretch of acceleration;

10.             Braking using only the front or only rear brake at reduced speed;

11.             Braking starting with the front brake and adding the braking of the rear brake;

12.             Braking by measuring the intensity of the two brakes;

13.             Brake by deliberately dismounting the rear wheel;

Getting the bending ability : It's good to straighten out that bending means tilting the bicycle to counteract the centrifugal force that tends to push the rider outward and that this strength depends on the speed and radius of the curve from   face up to. It is also important to know that the internal pedal inside the curve is kept high and the weight of the body unbalanced on the outer leg.

14.             Slalom or gymnastics: the slalom between cones or pins or kinesis at different distances is a very important exercise for learning the skills of riding and balance before even that of bending. Moving or approaching landmarks allows you to acquire specific adaptations at different speeds. For the organizational and executive simplicity of this exercise it is easy to adapt to playful situations, stakes or games that can involve even the greatest.

15.             The giant slalom: with the cones, doors are built that the exeiders must cross; These doors may be more or less inclined and of different width. As the previous exercise can be used in several ways and also exploited to improve parallel skills.

16.             Eight: You are required to follow an eight-way tour around two spins at varying distances.

17.             The daisy: with four bowls at the top of a square and one in the center, it is necessary to turn around the outdoor skittles passing from the center every time

Obtaining the ability to curb and bend: Getting the right braking technique before the curve involves the awareness that the speed must be reduced before the curve and that this operation begins in a straight line especially with the front brake and continues, Curve entry.

18.             The U-inversion: using cones or skaters, you can trace two rounds around which you have to curve coming from the straight and after having properly braked, turning in either direction or making a path to eight.

19.             The roundabout: sketch two concentric semicircles with the bowls to create a semicircular lane that the students have to face after braking. Execution of the exercise with different amplitudes allows the testing of different bending and inclination speeds of the bicycle;

20.             The vortex: the arrangement of three or four parallel ports forces the student to a series of radii curves more or less wide. Exercise can be tightened or enlarged in both directions.

Improve your bike balance

21. Passage under the stern: With two slits and a fairly low post pocket, the student asks the student to lower the torso in order to go below. By lowering the height of the stool, the pupil will have to think differently so as not to bump with his back: at the beginning he will only bend his torso forward, then retract the pelvis and rest his abdomen on the saddle and finally unbalanced laterally. In this exercise, it is appropriate to let the students have the opportunity to invent personal solutions to address the problem, and in the future, solutions that did not spontaneously occur.

22.             Slalom in precarious equilibrium: the slalom is performed by passing the front wheel on one side and the rear one on the other side of the bow. Exercise can be performed by sitting or standing on the pedals as long as you use low bowls.

23.             Skating slalom under the pedal: the rear wheel passes from the opposite side of the front wheel. In practice, the two wheels travel through a different gymnast around bowls.

24.             The eight in precarious equilibrium: it requires the student to follow an eight-way course by turning around two spins or two circles close to the point where they have to run the exercise at very low speeds or almost to stand.

25.             The surplace: represents static equilibrium exercise par excellence and is crucial to acquiring perfect control of the medium.

1.b means for acquiring secondary technical skills

The acquisition of secondary technical skills represents the second step in the formation of the cyclist and is aimed at intelligent use of the bicycle. They are divided into manual skills, of which the use of the relationship is the most important, and jumps that provide the cyclist with a safety tool in the face of unpredictable obstacles (holes, masts, rails, etc.). Below are a list of exercises that can, as in the case of primary skills, be completed and integrated by the experience and fantasy of the technicians. The exercises proposed are aimed at acquiring the following skills:

  • Use the report correctly
  • Go with one hand and no hands
  • jump

1.c means for acquiring technical skills in a group

The process of learning technical skills in a group requires a good level of mastery of individual technical skills, although the simplest tutorials targeted at this goal are offered to children and young people since the first lessons as they represent the general criteria for moving in nell 'Environment in relation to others.

The exercises proposed are aimed at acquiring the following skills:

  • The row (wheel)
  • Group walking
  • The fan
  • The escape attempt
  • tracking

Being wheeled is the indispensable prerequisite on which to build other group abilities. This skill is of fundamental importance as it allows the runner to take advantage of the wake of others to reduce friction with the air. The didactic progress of wheeling must take into account the different needs of learning to stay close to those who precede and avoiding falls. Subjects must already possess a discreet mastery of the medium. The main rules to follow are clearly explained since the very first exercises:

                                    - proceed steadily;

                                    - to have as the benchmark the companion's seat that precedes and not its wheel;

                                    - do not rest abruptly;

                                    - Do not turn around and do not look at the change;

                                    - do not stand up abruptly on the pedals;

                                    - decelerate only after moving to change;

                                    - Report any obstacles to the companion that follows.

The change should preferably be done to the right to prevent the shifting friend moving too far to the center of the road. From the single row, she passes to the pairs of pairs that the student learns to have comrades alongside both in front and behind. This skill needs to be prepared with couples in safe environments: pedaling to the elbow, giving the hand, placing his hand on the partner's shoulder, passing the bottle, and so on. The double row consists of two parallel files one of which is active and the other passive. The leader of the active row moves from the other side when his bicycle has completely exceeded that of the other leader. The runners proceed all with their hands below and possibly with the same ratio. Choosing the direction of rotation depends on the direction of the wind and predicts that the active row will always be down. The effectiveness of this exercise depends on the compactness of the group. The fan is the group's ability to face strong side winds, it is recommended for boys who already have good group skills and, for the required roadwork, can only be performed in very special situations. The escape attempt and the pursuit presuppose possession of the following abilities: kick, counterattack and elasticize. The shot is done standing with your hands underneath and, to run it in counterattack, must be made after leaving a few feet of advantage to the runner ahead to surpass it at a much higher speed and moving from the other side of the road in order to Surprise her and not let her take the wheel. The elasticity consists in abandoning the wheel of those who precede it by forcing the runner who follows to overtake us and snap to resume the group.

In conclusion, it is possible to say that every activity that is practiced, practiced, practiced is the only way to improve, to have greater safety with the medium (the bicycle), to have the best chance to exploit its physical potential by consuming less energy possible. So you need to learn to ride on the bike and to make the best use of the pedal technique, we can put these exercises during the training session, especially during the heating and the session's deflation, to leave room for all Conditional appearance in the central part of the training session! Try to improve!

Good fun

(Source: FITRI Instructor Course)


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